看到 | The danger of a single story
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2018-4-9 10:11

四个星期前,我发了一张图:My Wife and My Mother-in-Law. 

这张图里,有一个年轻的Lady,是妻子;也有一个年老的妇人,是丈母娘。当时我有问大家:你们看到了哪一个?

......

为什么要发这张图?

因为这张图的背后,有着太多的东西可以说。

关于阅读,关于思维,关于理解,关于世界。

而这些关于的背后,它们的共同指向是:看到!

今天这个文,是【看到】系列的第一篇:来自尼日利亚小说家Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie的一次TED Talk: The danger of a single story

Chimamanda是谁?她都写了什么书?又是因为什么成就而出名?......这些都先跳过。有兴趣的伙伴,自己先去搜索下。

这里,我想用《华盛顿邮报》对Chimamanda的一段描述,来作为今天这一篇的引言

When she turned 10 and read Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, about the clash between Igbo tradition and the British colonial way of life, everything changed: “I realized that people who looked like me could live in books.” She has been writing about Africa ever since.

在她十岁时,她读到了Chinua Achebe的小说《瓦解》,讲述的是传统的伊博人和英国殖民统治之间的冲突与碰撞。这本小说让她意识到:“原来和我一样的人,也是可以出现在书里的!" 从那刻起,一切都变了!而她,也从此开始,讲述非洲......

— Washington Post

注:Chinua Achebe是尼日利亚著名的小说家,诗人,评论家。他的成名作《瓦解》,是非洲文学中最被广泛阅读的作品。

故事比较长,长过城里到城外。:) 

The danger of a single story

视频地址:

https://v.qq.com/x/page/c0624dclesz.html

Speaker: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie 

Translated by: Zachary Lin Zhao

1. I'm a storyteller. And I would like to tell you a few personal stories about what I like to call "the danger of the single story." 

I grew up on a university campus in eastern Nigeria. My mother says that I started reading at the age of two, although I think four is probably close to the truth. So I was an early reader, and what I read were British and American children's books.

我是个说书之人。在这里,我想和大家分享一些我本人的故事,一些关于所谓的“单一故事的危险性”的经历。

我成长在尼日利亚东部的一所大学校园里。我母亲常说我从两岁起就开始读书,不过我觉得“四岁起”比较接近事实。所以我从小就开始读书,读的是英国和美国的儿童书籍。

2. I was also an early writer, and when I began to write, at about the age of seven, stories in pencil with crayon illustrations that my poor mother was obligated to read, I wrote exactly the kinds of stories I was reading: All my characters were white and blue-eyed, they played in the snow, they ate apples, and they talked a lot about the weather, how lovely it was that the sun had come out.

Now, this despite the fact that I lived in Nigeria. I had never been outside Nigeria. We didn't have snow, we ate mangoes, and we never talked about the weather, because there was no need to.

我也从小就开始写作。在我七岁时,我强迫我那可怜的母亲阅读我用铅笔写的故事,外加蜡笔描绘的插图。我所写的正如我所读到的故事那样,故事里的人物都是白皮肤,蓝眼睛,常在雪中嬉戏,吃着苹果。而且他们经常讨论天气,讨论太阳出来时一切都多么美好。

我一直写着这样的故事,虽然我当时住在尼日利亚,从来都没有出过国;虽然我们从没见过雪,我们实际上吃芒果;虽然我们从不讨论天气,因为根本没有这个必要。

3.My characters also drank a lot of ginger beer, because the characters in the British books I read drank ginger beer. Never mind that I had no idea what ginger beer was.

And for many years afterwards, I would have a desperate desire to taste ginger beer. But that is another story.

我故事里的人物们也常喝姜汁啤酒,因为我所读的那些英国书中的人物,也都常喝姜汁啤酒。虽然我当时并不知道姜汁啤酒是什么。 

事隔多年,我一直都怀揣着一个深切的渴望,想去尝尝姜汁啤酒究竟是什么味道。不过这是另外一个故事了。

4.What this demonstrates, I think, is how impressionable and vulnerable we are in the face of a story, particularly as children. Because all I had read were books in which characters were foreign, I had become convinced that books by their very nature had to have foreigners in them and had to be about things with which I could not personally identify. Now, things changed when I discovered African books. There weren't many of them available, and they weren't quite as easy to find as the foreign books.

这一切都表明,在一个个故事面前,我们是何等脆弱,何等易受影响,尤其当我们还是孩子时。在我当时读的所有书目中,都只有外国人,我因此而坚信:书,要想被称为书,里面就必须要有外国人,就必须是关于那些我无法亲身去体验的事情。而这一切都在我接触了非洲书籍之后,发生了改变。当时非洲本土的书并不多,而且它们也不像国外书籍那样好找。

5.But because of writers like Chinua Achebe and Camara Laye, I went through a mental shift in my perception of literature. I realized that people like me, girls with skin the color of chocolate, whose kinky hair could not form ponytails, could also exist in literature. I started to write about things I recognized.

不过,因为Chinua Achebe和Camara Laye这些作家,我的意识中,对于文学的概念,开始发生了质的改变。我意识到,像我这样的人:有着巧克力的肤色,卷曲的头发,永远无法梳成马尾辫的女孩子们,也是可以出现在文学作品中的!于是,我开始去描写那些我所熟知的事物。

6.Now, I loved those American and British books I read. They stirred my imagination. They opened up new worlds for me. But the unintended consequence was that I did not know that people like me could exist in literature. So what the discovery of African writers did for me was this: It saved me from having a single story of what books are.

但这并不是说我不喜爱那些美国英国书籍。恰恰相反,正是那些书籍激发了我的想象力,为我开启了新的世界。但随之而来的后果是,我不知道原来像我这样的人,也是可以存在于文学作品之中的。 而与非洲作家的结缘,则将我从关于书籍的单一故事里,解救了出来。

7.I come from a conventional, middle-class Nigerian family. My father was a professor. My mother was an administrator. And so we had, as was the norm, live-in domestic help, who would often come from nearby rural villages. 

So, the year I turned eight, we got a new house boy. His name was Fide. The only thing my mother told us about him was that his family was very poor. My mother sent yams and rice, and our old clothes, to his family. And when I didn't finish my dinner, my mother would say, "Finish your food! Don't you know? People like Fide's family have nothing." So I felt enormous pity for Fide's family.

我来自一个传统的尼日利亚中产家庭。我的父亲是一名教授,我的母亲是一名管理者。因此我们和很多其他家庭一样,都会从附近的村庄中雇佣一些帮手来打理家务。

在我八岁那一年,我们家招来了一位新男仆。他的名字叫做Fide。我母亲告诉我,Fide来自一个非常穷苦的家庭。我的母亲也会时不时地将山芋,大米,还有我们穿旧的衣服送到他的家里去。每当我剩下晚饭,我的母亲就会说:“吃干净你的食物!难道你不知道吗,像Fide家这样的人,他们可是一无所有的!” 因此我对Fide一家,充满了同情。

8.Then one Saturday, we went to his village to visit, and his mother showed us a beautifully patterned basketmade of dyed raffia that his brother had made. I was startled. It had not occurred to me that anybody in his family could actually make something. All I had heard about them was how poor they were, so that it had become impossible for me to see them as anything else but poor. Their poverty was my single story of them.

后来的一个星期六,我们去Fide的村庄拜访。她的母亲向我们展示了一个精美别致的草篮,是Fide的哥哥用染过色的酒椰叶编织的。我当时完全震住了!我从来没想过Fide的家人,居然有亲手制造东西的才能!在那之前,我对他家唯一的了解就是,他们是何等何等的穷苦。也正因为此,他们在我脑中的印象,只是一个字:穷。他们的贫穷,是我对他们的唯一了解。

9.Years later, I thought about this when I left Nigeria to go to university in the United States. I was 19. My American roommate was shocked by me. She asked where I had learned to speak English so well, and was confused when I said that Nigeria happened to have English as its official language. She asked if she could listen to what she called my "tribal music," and was consequently very disappointed when I produced my tape of Mariah Carey.

多年以后,在我离开尼日利亚,前往美国读大学时,我又想起这件事。我那时19岁,我的美国室友在面对我时,她都惊呆了!她问我是从哪里学得一口如此流利的英文。而当我告诉她,尼日利亚就是以英文作为官方语言时,她的脸上写满了茫然。她问我是否可以给她听听那种所谓的“部落音乐”。可想而知,当我拿出Mariah Carey的磁带时,她是何等的失望。 

10.She assumed that I did not know how to use a stove.

What struck me was this: She had felt sorry for me even before she saw me. Her default position toward me, as an African, was a kind of patronizing, well-meaning pity. My roommate had a single story of Africa: a single story of catastrophe. In this single story, there was no possibility of Africans being similar to her in any way, no possibility of feelings more complex than pity, no possibility of a connection as human equals.

她断定我不知道如何使用电炉。

让我震惊的是:在她还没有见到我时,她就已经对我充满了怜悯。她对我这个非洲人的预设心态是:一种充满施恩与好意的怜悯之情。在我那位室友的脑中,非洲,是一个单一的故事,一个充满了灾难的单一故事。在这个单一故事中,非洲人是完全没有可能在任何方面和她有所相似;是完全没有可能感受到比让人怜悯更复杂的感情; 是完全没有可能以一个平等的,以一个人的身份,去与她沟通。

11.I must say that before I went to the U.S., I didn't consciously identify as African. But in the U.S., whenever Africa came up, people turned to me. Never mind that I knew nothing about places like Namibia. But I did come to embrace this new identity, and in many ways I think of myself now as African. Although I still get quite irritable when Africa is referred to as a country, the most recent example being my otherwise wonderful flight from Lagos two days ago, in which there was an announcement on the Virgin flight about the charity work in "India, Africa and other countries."

我不得不强调,在我前往美国之前,我从来没有“有意识地”把自己当作非洲人。但在美国时,每当人们提到非洲,大家都会转向我,虽然我对纳米比亚之类的地方也是一无所知。但渐渐地,我开始接受这个新的身份。现在很多时候,我都会把自己当作一个非洲人来看待。不过当人们把非洲当作一个国家来讨论时,我还是觉得挺生气的。最近的一次例子就发生在两天前,我从拉各斯搭乘航班。旅程原本是相当愉快的,直到广播里开始介绍:“在印度,非洲,以及其他国家,所进行的慈善事业”。

12.So, after I had spent some years in the U.S. as an African, I began to understand my roommate's response to me. If I had not grown up in Nigeria, and if all I knew about Africa were from popular images, I too would think that Africa was a place of beautiful landscapes, beautiful animals, and incomprehensible people, fighting senseless wars, dying of poverty and AIDS, unable to speak for themselves and waiting to be saved by a kind, white foreigner. I would see Africans in the same way that I, as a child, had seen Fide's family.

当我以一名非洲人的身份,在美国度过几年之后,我开始理解我那位室友当时对我的反应。如果我不是在尼日利亚长大,如果我对非洲的一切认识都来自于大众流行的影像,我相信我眼中的非洲,也同样是充满了美丽的地貌,美丽的动物,以及一群难以理解的人们。他们在进行着毫无意义的战争,死于贫穷,死于艾滋,无法为自己辩护,在默默等待一位慈悲的白种外国人来解救。我看待非洲的方式,将会和我儿时看待Fide一家的方式,是一样的。

13.This single story of Africa ultimately comes, I think, from Western literature. Now, here is a quote from the writing of a London merchant called John Lok, who sailed to west Africa in 1561 and kept a fascinating account of his voyage. After referring to the black Africans as "beasts who have no houses," he writes, "They are also people without heads, having their mouth and eyes in their breasts."

我认为,关于非洲的这个单一故事,从根本上来自于西方文学。来自伦敦商人John Lok有写过一段话。他在1561年,曾游历非洲西部,并且为他的航行做了一番很有趣的记录。他先是把黑色的非洲人称为 “没有房子的野兽”,随后又写到:“他们没有头,他们的嘴和眼睛都长在了胸口上。”

14.Now, I've laughed every time I've read this. And one must admire the imagination of John Lok. But what is important about his writing is that it represents the beginning of a tradition of telling African stories in the West: A tradition of Sub-Saharan Africa as a place of negatives, of difference, of darkness, of people who, in the words of the wonderful poet Rudyard Kipling, are "half devil, half child."

我每次读到这一段时,都会不禁大笑起来。John Lok的想象力,真是让人敬佩。 但关于他这段作品极其重要的一点是,它在昭示一个西方社会讲述非洲故事的传统。在这个传统中,撒哈拉以南的非洲,充满了消极,差异,以及黑暗,是伟大诗人Rudyard Kipling笔下所形容的 “半恶魔,半孩童” 的奇异人种。

15.And so, I began to realize that my American roommate must have throughout her life seen and heard different versions of this single story, as had a professor, who once told me that my novel was not "authentically African." 

Now, I was quite willing to contend that there were a number of things wrong with the novel, that it had failed in a number of places, but I had not quite imagined that it had failed at achieving something called African authenticity. In fact, I did not know what African authenticity was. The professor told me that my characters were too much like him, an educated and middle-class man. My characters drove cars. They were not starving. Therefore they were not authentically African.

正因此,我开始意识到,我的那位美国室友,在她的成长过程中,一定看过并且听过关于这个单一故事的不同版本,就如同之前一位批判我的小说缺乏“真实的非洲感”的教授一样。

话说,我确实承认我的小说有几处写的不好,有几处败笔,但我很难相像,我的小说竟然会缺乏“真实的非洲感”。 事实上,我甚至不知道“真实的非洲感” ,到底是个什么东西?那位教授跟我说,我书中的人物和他太像了!都是受过教育的中产,他们会开车,他们并没有在挨饿。因此,他们缺少了真实的非洲感。

16.But I must quickly add that I too am just as guilty in the question of the single story. A few years ago, I visited Mexico from the U.S. The political climate in the U.S. at the time was tense, and there were debates going on about immigration. And, as often happens in America, immigration became synonymous with Mexicans. There were endless stories of Mexicans as people who were fleecing the healthcare system, sneaking across the border, being arrested at the border, that sort of thing.

我在这里不得不指出,我自己也常常被单一的故事所蒙蔽。几年前,我从美国探访墨西哥。当时美国的政治气候比较紧张,关于移民的辩论一直在进行。而在美国,“移民”和“墨西哥人” 常常被当作同义词来使用。关于墨西哥人的故事,也是源源不绝,讲的都是欺诈医疗系统,偷渡边境,在边境被捕之类的事情。

17.I remember walking around on my first day in Guadalajara, watching the people going to work, rolling up tortillas in the marketplace, smoking, laughing. I remember first feeling slight surprise. And then, I was overwhelmed with shame. I realized that I had been so immersed in the media coverage of Mexicans that they had become one thing in my mind, the abject immigrant. I had bought into the single story of Mexicans and I could not have been more ashamed of myself.

So that is how to create a single story, show a people as one thing, as only one thing, over and over again, and that is what they become.

我还记得当我到达瓜达拉哈拉(墨西哥西部城市)的第一天,看着人们前往工作,看着他们在市集上吃着墨西哥卷,抽着烟,大笑着。 我记得我刚看到这一切时,我非常惊讶。但随后,我的心中便充满了羞耻感。 我意识到,我当时完全沉浸于媒体对墨西哥人的各种报道中,以致于他们在我的脑中,幻化成了一个单一的个体:卑贱的移民。我完全相信了关于墨西哥人的单一故事,我对此感到无比羞愧。 

这就是创造单一故事的经过,将一群人一遍又一遍地呈现为一个事物,并且只是一个事物,时间久了,他们就变成了那个事物。

18.It is impossible to talk about the single story without talking about power. There is a word, an Igbo word, that I think about whenever I think about the power structures of the world, and it is "nkali." It's a noun that loosely translates to "to be greater than another." Like our economic and political worlds, stories too are defined by the principle of nkali: How they are told, who tells them, when they're told, how many stories are told, are really dependent on power.

而说到单一的故事,就自然要讲到权力。每当我想到这个世界的权力结构时,我都会想起伊博语中的一个词:nkali。它是一个名词,大意上可以翻译成 “比另一个人更强大”。就如同我们的经济,以及政治界一样,我们所讲的故事,也是建立在nkali的原则上。这些故事,怎样被讲述,由谁来讲述,何时被讲述,有多少故事被讲述,这一切都取决于权力。

19.Power is the ability not just to tell the story of another person, but to make it the definitive story of that person. The Palestinian poet Mourid Barghouti writes that if you want to dispossess a people, the simplest way to do it is to tell their story and to start with, "secondly." 

Start the story with the arrows of the Native Americans, and not with the arrival of the British, and you have an entirely different story. Start the story with the failure of the African state, and not with the colonial creation of the African state, and you have an entirely different story.

所谓的权力,不单单是讲述一个关于别人的故事的能力,而是将那个故事,转变为关于那个人的决定性故事。巴勒斯坦诗人Mourid Barghouti曾经写到:如果你想剥夺一群人的权利,最简单的办法就是,讲述一个关于他们的故事,并且从“第二点”开始讲起。 

讲述一个故事,从印第安土著人的弓箭讲起,而不是英国人的侵占,整个故事将变得完全不同。讲述一个故事,从非洲国家的失败谈起,而不是殖民者瓜分创建这些非洲国家的过程,整个故事,也将变得完全不同。

20.I recently spoke at a university where a student told me that it was such a shame that Nigerian men were physical abusers like the father character in my novel. I told him that I had just read a novel called "American Psycho" ----and that it was such a shame that young Americans were serial murderers. Now, obviously I said this in a fit of mild irritation.

我最近刚刚在一所大学做了一次演讲。一个学生对我说:非常可悲,尼日利亚的男人和我书中的父亲角色一样,都是施暴者。我告诉他,我最近刚刚读了一本小说,叫做《 美国精神狂魔》,对此我也感到很惋惜, 美国青年都是连环杀手。当然了,那是我一时的气话。 

21.But it would never have occurred to me to think that just because I had read a novel in which a character was a serial killer that he was somehow representative of all Americans. This is not because I am a better person than that student, but because of America's cultural and economic power, I had many stories of America. I had read Tyler and Updike and Steinbeck and Gaitskill. I did not have a single story of America.

我绝不会认为,仅仅因为我读了一本以连环杀手为主角的小说,他便可以代表所有美国人。这并不是因为我比那位学生出色,而是因为,美国的文化以及经济的雄厚实力,使得我有机会掌握了关于美国的多重故事。我读过Tyler,Updike,Steinbeck,以及Gaitskill。 因此我对美国的了解,并不是来自单一的故事。

22.When I learned, some years ago, that writers were expected to have had really unhappy childhoods to be successful, I began to think about how I could invent horrible things my parents had done to me.

But the truth is that I had a very happy childhood, full of laughter and love, in a very close-knit family.

多年前,当我听说作家们必须要有极其不幸的童年,才能取得成功的时候,我开始思考如何捏造一些我父母对我做过的恶行。但事实上,我的童年非常愉快,充满了欢笑和关爱,也有着一个非常亲密的家庭。

23.But I also had grandfathers who died in refugee camps. My cousin Polle died because he could not get adequate healthcare. One of my closest friends, Okoloma, died in a plane crash because our fire trucks did not have water. I grew up under repressive military governments that devalued education, so that sometimes, my parents were not paid their salaries. And so, as a child, I saw jam disappear from the breakfast table, then margarine disappeared, then bread became too expensive, then milk became rationed. And most of all, a kind of normalized political fear invaded our lives.

但我也有在难民营中死去的祖父。我的表兄Polle,因为无法得到充足的医疗而去世。我最亲近的朋友之一Okoloma,死于一场飞机失事,因为我们的消防车中没有水。我在不重视教育,充满压迫性的军权政府下长大,以致于我的父母有时根本拿不到工资。 因此,年少的我,曾经目睹过果酱从早餐桌上消失,随后黄油也消失了,面包变得无比昂贵,牛奶需要限量供应。最重要的是,政治恐惧,成了我们生活中习以为常的一部分。

24.All of these stories make me who I am. But to insist on only these negative stories is to flatten my experience and to overlook the many other stories that formed me. The single story creates stereotypes, and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue, but that they are incomplete. They make one story become the only story.

所有的这些故事,都塑造了我。 但如果仅仅关注这些悲观的故事,那么就简化了我的生命历程,并且忽视了许多其他同样塑造了我的故事。单一的故事,衍生出单一的偏见。 而这些以偏概全的想法,它们所存在的问题,并不是因为它们不真实,而是因为它们不完整。它们将一个故事,转变成了唯一的故事。

25.Of course, Africa is a continent full of catastrophes: There are immense ones, such as the horrific rapes in Congo and depressing ones, such as the fact that 5,000 people apply for one job vacancy in Nigeria. But there are other stories that are not about catastrophe, and it is very important, it is just as important, to talk about them.

当然,非洲大陆充满了灾难。有的灾难,比如刚果猖獗的犯奸,是无比严重的。而有的现实,比如尼日利亚的5千人申请一个工作职位,则更是让人无比压抑。但与此同时,非洲大陆也有许多和灾难并不相关的故事。谈论这些故事,也是相当重要的,也是同等重要的!

26.I've always felt that it is impossible to engage properly with a place or a person without engaging with all of the stories of that place and that person. The consequence of the single story is this: It robs people of dignity. It makes our recognition of our equal humanity difficult. It emphasizes how we are different rather than how we are similar.

我一直都觉得,要想充分了解一个地区,一个民族,就必须充分了解,和那个地区,那个民族,所相关的所有故事。 而单一故事的结果是:它夺走了人们的尊严。它使得我们难以意识到人与人之间的平等。它强调我们之间的不同, 而不是我们之间的相同。

27.So what if before my Mexican trip, I had followed the immigration debate from both sides, the U.S. and the Mexican? What if my mother had told us that Fide's family was poor and hardworking? What if we had an African television network that broadcast diverse African stories all over the world? What the Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe calls "a balance of stories."

如果在我的墨西哥之行开始前,我去聆听移民辩论中,美墨两边各自的观点,那结果会怎样?如果我的母亲告诉我,Fide一家虽然穷,但是很努力,那结果会怎样?如果我们有一个非洲电视台,在全世界播报关于非洲的不同故事,那结果又会怎样?正如尼日利亚作家Chinua Achebe所说的那样:一个平衡的故事。

28.What if my roommate knew about my Nigerian publisher, Muhtar Bakare, a remarkable man who left his job in a bank to follow his dream and start a publishing house? Now, the conventional wisdom was that Nigerians don't read literature. He disagreed. He felt that people who could read, would read, if you made literature affordable and available to them.

我杰出的尼日利亚出版商Mukta Bakaray,是个让人难以置信的人。他放弃了原本在银行的工作,去追逐自己的理想,成立了一个出版社。如果我的室友听说过他,结果会是怎样呢? 世俗告诉Mukta Bakaray:尼日利亚人是不读文学作品的。但他不这样认为。他觉得尼日利亚人会读书,想读书,但前提是,这些书的价格不能太昂贵,并且要普及到人民大众。

29.Shortly after he published my first novel, I went to a TV station in Lagos to do an interview, and a woman who worked there as a messenger came up to me and said, "I really liked your novel. I didn't like the ending. Now, you must write a sequel, and this is what will happen ..."

And she went on to tell me what to write in the sequel. I was not only charmed, I was very moved. Here was a woman, part of the ordinary masses of Nigerians, who were not supposed to be readers. She had not only read the book, but she had taken ownership of it and felt justified in telling me what to write in the sequel.

在他出版了我的第一部小说不久后,我前往拉各斯的一家电视台接受访问。 期间,一位在那里做通信员的女士走向我。她说道:“我真的非常喜欢你的小说。但我不喜欢那个结尾。你必须要写一个续集,并且应该这么写......” 她滔滔不绝地告诉我,续集中要写些什么。她的言语不仅让我充满欢喜,也让我充满感动。 她只是一个平凡的女士,是尼日利亚普罗大众中的一员,一个本不应该读书的一员。但她不仅仅读了那本书,而且充满了参与创作的希望,并且觉得有足够的影响,来告诉我,在续集中应该要写些什么。

30.Now, what if my roommate knew about my friend Funmi Iyanda, a fearless woman who hosts a TV show in Lagos, and is determined to tell the stories that we prefer to forget? What if my roommate knew about the heart procedure that was performed in the Lagos hospital last week? What if my roommate knew about contemporary Nigerian music, talented people singing in English and Pidgin, and Igbo and Yoruba and Ijo, mixing influences from Jay-Z to Fela to Bob Marley to their grandfathers.

我的朋友Fumi Onda是个无畏的女人。她在拉各斯主持一档电视节目,旨在讲述那些试图被忘记的故事。如果我室友听说过她,一切会变得不同吗? 如果我的室友听说过上周在拉各斯医院进行的心脏手术,一切会变得不同吗? 如果我的室友听说过尼日利亚的当代音乐呢? 那些极富才能的人们,用英语,皮钦语,伊博语,约鲁巴语,以及伊乔语进行演唱,将杰斯,费拉,鲍勃·马利以及他们祖父们的音乐混杂在一起。

31.What if my roommate knew about the female lawyer who recently went to court in Nigeria to challenge a ridiculous law that required women to get their husband's consent before renewing their passports? What if my roommate knew about Nollywood, full of innovative people making films despite great technical odds, films so popular that they really are the best example of Nigerians consuming what they produce? What if my roommate knew about my wonderfully ambitious hair braider, who has just started her own business selling hair extensions? Or about the millions of other Nigerians who start businesses and sometimes fail, but continue to nurse ambition?

最近有一名女律师,在尼日利亚的法庭上挑战一条极其荒谬的法案:妇女必须经过她们老公的许可,才可以更新她们的护照。如果我的室友听说过她,结果会怎样?如果我的室友听说过“尼莱坞”以及那些为冲破技术上的缺陷,不断创作影视作品的创新者呢?他们制作的电影在本地极其流行,是尼日利亚人自给自足的最佳例子。给我辫辫子的朋友最近也刚刚成了自己的事业,开始售卖她的接发片。如果我的室友听说过她,结果会怎样? 或者是其他数以百万的尼日利亚人,他们创办自己的产业,虽然难免失利,但却不曾放弃雄心,如果我的室友也都听说过他们,结果又会怎样呢?

32.Every time I am home I am confronted with the usual sources of irritation for most Nigerians: our failed infrastructure, our failed government, but also by the incredible resilience of people who thrive despite the government, rather than because of it. I teach writing workshops in Lagos every summer, and it is amazing to me how many people apply, how many people are eager to write, to tell stories.

我每次回家的时候,都会面临那些令众多尼日利亚人头疼的事情:失败的基础设施,失败的政府。但与此同时,我也看到了人们面对这个政府所展现出的坚韧不拔,而不是被它给击垮。每年夏天我都会在拉各斯开办写作班,都会被申请的人数震惊到。有这么多的人,想要学习写作,想要去讲述他们的故事。

33.My Nigerian publisher and I have just started a non-profit called Farafina Trust, and we have big dreams of building libraries and refurbishing libraries that already exist and providing books for state schools that don't have anything in their libraries, and also of organizing lots and lots of workshops, in reading and writing, for all the people who are eager to tell our many stories.

我的尼日利亚出版商,和我成立了一个非营利性组织,叫做Farafina信托。我们怀揣一个伟大的梦想:我们想建造图书馆,我们也想重新装修已有的图书馆。对于那些图书馆内空空如也的政府学校,我们会捐赠图书。我们也会组织大量的阅读班,写作班,来帮助那些渴望讲述我们自己故事的人们。

34.Stories matter. Many stories matter. Stories have been used to dispossess and to malign, but stories can also be used to empower and to humanize. Stories can break the dignity of a people, but stories can also repair that broken dignity.

故事很重要。多重性的故事很重要。故事一直被用来剥夺,用来中伤。 但故事,也可以赋予力量,以及人性。 故事可以击毁一个民族的尊严, 但也可以修补那被击毁的尊严。

35.The American writer Alice Walker wrote this about her Southern relatives who had moved to the North. She introduced them to a book about the Southern life that they had left behind. "They sat around, reading the book themselves, listening to me read the book, and a kind of paradise was regained."

I would like to end with this thought: That when we reject the single story, when we realize that there is never a single story about any place, we regain a kind of paradise. 

Thank you!

美国作家Alice Walker曾写过关于她那些搬迁至北方的南方亲戚们。她为他们推荐了一本书,一本关于他们已挥别的南方生活的书。 “他们团团坐在一起,读着这本书,或是听我给他们读这本书,一种天堂的感觉,因此而被重拾。” 

我想以此来结束我的演讲:当我们拒绝单一的故事,当我们认识到任何地方都没有单一的故事时,我们也将重拾一份天堂。 

谢谢!


安妮何的话:

这段讲述很长,我就不再多说了。

一直记得这句话,很有穿透力:You‘ve already known me even before you see me! 

看到。未完待续......


参考资料及图片来源:

archatlas.net

decopaperchile.blogspot.co.za

estenioelbainy.blogspot.com

fineartamerica.com

google.com

i.pinimg.com

pinterest.com

robbreport.com

ted.com/talks

ted.com/speakers

thatgoodgoodblog.blogspot.com

zh.wikipedia.org

关于安妮何:国际学校里,蹦跶十二年。技术流写文,有理论,有示范,有讲解,用轻松又柔软的语言,阐述复杂的学术理论。运营同名微信公众号:安妮何(ID:Miss_Annie_He ) 

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